• Patent, trademark, and copyright prosecution
  • Infringement, validity and freedom to operate opinions
  • IP licensing, litigation and due diligence

Intellectual property is becoming increasingly more important in today's global economy. In our decades of experience, both in the U.S. and abroad, we have been keen observers of the shifting climate of intellectual property law. Intellectual property battles between the goliaths of the industry are told in the headlines every day. Just as the IP of the goliaths of the industry is critical, your intellectual property is important to you and your business as well.

We provide a wide range of legal services for clients ranging from individual inventors to large corporations, and our practice focuses on the procurement, enforcement and defense of intellectual property rights. We are proud of the relationships we have developed while working with some of the most successful engineering and technical minds from various industries. Most importantly, we attribute our successes to having earned the trust of our clients with focus, attention and respect.

A strong intellectual property portfolio is an integral part in planning for the long-term success of your business. We can help you invest in your current and future innovations with our broad technical background in all matters of intellectual property law. Let us help you with your IP assets so you can continue coming up with the next big idea.

Basic Types of Intellectual Property

Patents, trademarks and copyrights protect different types of intellectual property.

A patent protects an invention. A trademark typically protects brand names and logos used on goods and services. A copyright protects an original artistic or literary work. For example, if you invent a new kind of vacuum cleaner, you would apply for a patent to protect the invention itself. You would apply to register a trademark to protect the brand name of the vacuum cleaner. And you might register a copyright for the TV commercial that you use to market the product. A brief overview of each of these types of intellectual property is provided below.


A patent is an intellectual property right granted by the Government of the United States of America to an inventor “to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling the invention throughout the United States or importing the invention into the United States" for a limited time in exchange for public disclosure of the invention when the patent is granted.

There are three types of patents:

  • Utility patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof
  • Design patents may be granted to anyone who invents a new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture
  • Plant patents may be granted to anyone who invents or discovers and asexually reproduces any distinct and new variety of plant


A trademark is generally a word, phrase, symbol, or design, or a combination thereof, that identifies and distinguishes the source of goods of one party from those of others. A service mark is the same as a trademark, except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of service rather than goods. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity trademarks are also being displayed on company buildings. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. You can establish rights in a mark based on use of the mark in commerce, without a registration.

Owning a federal trademark registration on the Principal Register provides a number of advantages:

  • A legal presumption of your ownership of the mark and your exclusive right to use the mark nationwide on or in connection with the goods/services listed in the registration (whereas state registration only provides rights within the borders of that one state)
  • Public notice of your claim of ownership of the mark; listing in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's online database
  • The ability to record the U.S. registration with the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Service to prevent importation of infringing goods
  • The right to use the federal registration symbol "R-Circle"; the ability to bring an action concerning the mark in federal court
  • The use of the U.S. registration as a basis to obtain registration in foreign countries


Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to the authors of “original works of authorship," including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works.

  • Reproduce the copyrighted work
  • Prepare derivative works based on the copyrighted work
  • Distribute copies of the copyrighted work
  • Perform the copyrighted work publicly
  • Display the copyrighted work publicly

It is illegal for anyone to violate any of the rights provided by the copyright law to the owner of copyright. These rights, however, are not unlimited in scope. In some cases, these limitations are specified exemptions from copyright liability.

One major limitation is the doctrine of “fair use." In other instances, the limitation takes the form of a “compulsory license" under which certain limited uses of copyrighted works are permitted upon payment of specified royalties and compliance with statutory conditions.

The information provided herein was obtained from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and the U.S. Copyright Office at the Library of Congress, and is for informational purposes only and not intended as a legal opinion or advice.


John H. Choi

John H. Choi, Esq.

Bar and Court Admissions
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania
  • District of New Jersey
  • Eastern District of New York
  • Southern District of New York
  • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Professional Associations
Academic Background
  • J.D., Catholic University, Columbus School of Law, 2003
  • B.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, 1998

John H. Choi is an intellectual property attorney with extensive experience in all areas of intellectual property law. Mr. Choi's practice includes:

  • Domestic and foreign patent, trademark and copyright prosecution;
  • Intellectual property litigation in federal and state courts, and before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office;
  • Patent infringement, validity and freedom to operate opinions; and
  • Intellectual property licensing.

Mr. Choi has represented clients ranging from individual inventors to the largest camping tent manufacturer in the world, and his clients are both domestic and foreign. As a trusted advisor and counselor, Mr. Choi's priority is to provide quality service to his clients through his wealth of experience and personal attention to each and every matter. With a background in engineering and intellectual property law, Mr. Choi brings an added dimension to the practice of law.

Before becoming an attorney, Mr. Choi worked as an engineer in the electrical equipment manufacturing division of Eaton Corporation, a Fortune 500 company, as well as an engineering consulting firm in Seoul, Korea servicing Korea's largest pharmaceutical companies. During law school, Mr. Choi participated in study abroad programs in Japan and Korea while working at local intellectual property law firms. After law school and prior to his current practice, Mr. Choi was an associate in the intellectual property department at Akin, Gump, Strauss Hauer & Feld and then was an associate at an intellectual property law firm in New York City.

Anthony J. Natoli

Anthony J. Natoli, Esq.

Bar and Court Admissions
  • New York
  • Eastern District of New York
  • Southern District of New York
  • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Professional Associations
  • New York Bar Association
Academic Background
  • J.D., State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Law, 1991
  • B.A., Mathematics, Magna Cum Laude, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1988
  • B.S., Electrical and Computer Engineering, Magna Cum Laude, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1987

Anthony J. Natoli is an intellectual property attorney with over twenty years of diverse experience in counseling clients and protecting intellectual property, primarily in preparing, prosecuting and obtaining U.S. and international patents, including conducting patent interviews with patent examiners, as well as obtaining trademarks, designs, trade dress and copyrights.

Mr. Natoli has a B.S. in Electrical and Computer Engineering as well as a B.A. in Mathematics, and has applied his scientific, technical, and mathematical background to a wide range of inventions including, but not limited to, electronics, software applications, computer-related inventions including the Internet and E-commerce, and applications involving mathematical equations such as seismic data processing, medical imaging systems, etc.

Mr. Natoli has also worked extensively with mechanical inventions such as mechanical devices, surgical instruments, smartphones with buttons having graphical user interfaces, automotive design patents, and combinations of electronic and mechanical inventions.

Having worked for large companies as well as individual clients, Mr. Natoli has shown dedication to focusing on the needs of any type of client, and to identifying the best protections and procedures to follow for optimal protection in an economical manner.

With regard to drafting and prosecuting patent applications, Mr. Natoli uses his extensive technical background and imagination in drafting applications as well as his experience with conducting such patent interviews with patent examiners to expand and maintain a broad scope of protection of the invention in order to improve the resulting issued patent.

Leo Kim

Leo Kim, Esq.

Bar and Court Admissions
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Academic Background
  • J.D., Brooklyn Law School, 2009
  • B.S., Computer Information Systems, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 2003

Leo Kim is an intellectual property attorney focusing his practice on patent and trademark prosecution, and intellectual property litigation.  

Before law school, Mr. Kim utilized his background in computer science and worked at a hospital auditing start-up as a programmer designing financial auditing software. During law school, Mr. Kim worked for Hyundai Engineering in Seoul and Dubai where he reviewed the company's international contracts.  He also worked as a legislative assistant drafting bills for New York City Councilmember Alan Gerson representing the financial district.  Mr. Kim also interned for the Kings County District Attorney where he provided critical legal opinions for prosecutors.

After law school, Mr. Kim received a fellowship at the Kings Country Criminal Court where he drafted court opinions. After the fellowship, he was a solo practitioner in the area of civil litigation and also served as the executive director of a national non-profit medical association where he advised the board on legal matters including bylaw and tax law compliance.

Peter B. Choi, Ph.D., P.E.

  • Professional Engineer, Pennsylvania
  • Professional Engineer, Korea
Academic Background
  • Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University
  • M.S., Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering, Yonsei University

Dr. Peter B. Choi is a technical advisor who assists in the prosecution of patent applications. Dr. Choi has over forty years of engineering experience, particularly in process design for clean energy, biopharmaceutical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, fine chemical and petrochemical plants.

Throughout his career, Dr. Choi has worked for engineering companies as well as research institutions in the U.S. and Korea. More recently, Dr. Choi has owned and operated consulting firms assisting in the design of pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. In addition to his professional career, Dr. Choi has been an adjunct professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia as well as Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea where he taught various engineering courses.


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